Matias Cox

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About Matias Cox

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    Understanding the challenges facing the conservation of species and biomes in Africa.

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  1. Very interesting @COSMIC RHINO. The mechanisms that unite matriarchal societies are very complex. It is clear from the Study that orphans are segregated, have less social ties with adult females, have more elusive behavior, remain at the margins in certain routines, are closer to young people and other lower status members; orphans usually do not approach the matriarch. It seems that your stay in the group has a lot to do with being "tolerated." The "personality of the orphan" seems to be a preponderant factor in their ability to form a bond and to adapt socially to the group. It is only a few remarks to a study that presents many questions that focus on the difficulties for the survival of the orphans.
  2. @MikkelRH Very good your Infographic! By the way, very didactic! A great educational tool to teach young people and adults about hunting and its direct consequences for the animal species involved, and indirectly towards conservation in general. "The educational approach is capable of changing the mentality of future generations, and including the conservationist theme in the school curriculum would yield immeasurable results, After all, Education is able to make it natural to give up certain advantages for the benefit of wildlife." It is impossible to save the entire diversity of our planet by imputing an economic value to each of our species. We must understand our interdependence with the plurality of life. Note: For formal use in Education, it would be necessary to exclude the final part on donations, adoptions and fundraising.
  3. Kebbel is dead: The systematic death of desert lions is a commonplace and predictable fact that I prefer to reserve for mourning.
  4. Please look for the Topic posted a couple of hours ago by @COSMIC RHINO: "tree loss in chobe more likely to be human started fires than elephants" read the article and you will have a great surprise.
  5. This study will "illuminate" the elephant issue in northern Botswana. It is a great relief to note that the human factor is always in the forefront of deforestation, erosion, among other destructors of the earth. The view that elephants need to be reduced prevail in this forum almost unanimously. It would be very good if this study could be moved and presented to certain topics that are currently discussing this subject, to argue against this view. Another important thing is the government's involvement in this study, focusing on their concern, to understand and seek correct solutions to such problems. "Leave the elephants alone."
  6. Mr @Bugs presented in post 54 a Study and in post 55 another Study and, to whom it may concern, I will comment a little on the two study in question, I emphasize that both serve their purpose well and I believe that it is necessary to read about the subject. Both deserve better attention. Thank you for submitting your studies. 1st STUDY NAMED: Illegal Bushmeat huntIng In the Okavang Delta, BOtswana (DrIvers, Impacts and pOtentIal sOlutions) AUTHOR: FAO - FOOD anD AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATIONS OF THE UNITED NATURES. CO-SPONSOR PANTHERA BOTSWANA PREDATOR CONSERVATION TRUST It presents excellent data and a realistic content of the problems caused by the high bushmeat rate in the Okavango region, with very clear conclusions as to causes and effects for the wild population as a whole, proposing clear and objective way, notably through the involvement of communities in proposing greater economic involvement with wildlife ..... makes an interesting observation: most hunters are those who own land and livestock, and do not directly face poverty , makes use of hunting only by the criterion of easy opportunity since the Penal Law is soft, and the meat used, even when it is not used commercially, it substitutes the need to use its domestic cattle (demystifies that poverty is the motor leading poaching). Another finding is that the biggest victims are not the big animals (buffaloes, giraffes and elephants). Excellent document, a more comprehensive reality on the problematic conservacionales that the whole Okavango is passing through, including its formally unprotected area. 2nd NAMED STUDY: Effects of the safari hunting tourism on rural livelihoods and wildlife conservation in Northern Botswana. AUTHOR: Joseph E. Mbaiwa ROUTLEDGE - TAYLOR AND FRANCIS GROUP As the title suggests, it presents the negative consequences that the end of the trophy hunting imposed on the survival of communities and wildlife. It uses the "Social Exchange Teory" as a motor of development for the communities, in the which is very useful in terms of conservation. The problem is to inform that the trophy hunt provided many of the socioeconomic benefits until then (2014) and since its rupture the "social pact" has been broken and the community revolt provoked this poaching. It is a study laden with pro-hunting ideology, wildlife reduction and increased poaching are direct results of this suspension. Forgets that many of the problems of wildlife reduction and poverty community was already present in these places well before 2014. It is an immediate study aimed at instilling in readers a premise that before the ban the communities enjoyed numerous benefits and were satisfied with this model of sustainability.
  7. My post fulfilled its role ... it helped to develop the topic. I focused on the main subject line: the report, the content of which does not really have detailed information on how the process culminated in the realization that today Botswana enjoys a clear success in its conservation policy. It is easy to see that "functional disagreements" revolve around the end of trophy hunting in this country. It is a new situation, very recent and its developments will only be palpable from here a few years ago. Every paradigm shift provokes contrary reactions, whether true or not, classist or not. We know that it is only natural that the closure of trophy hunting concessions will lead to an increase in poaching and, of course, the closure of some jobs. As none of us reside in this country, reality is presented to us by ideologies, or rather by interests that are unknown. The opinion of a resident and non-conservation safaritalker could provide objective and practical criteria for what is really happening in Botswana. @douglaswise, your questions are pertinent. The fact that photographic tourists visit Tanzania, South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe is not to say that they have full knowledge that the trophy hunting is being done a few kilometers from their safari. Even if the trophy hunting is made officials who cater to photographic tourists are fully targeted to omit any mention on the subject, as well as tourists and hunters never meet, are targeted to different areas, the shots can not be heard. both you and I can not prove that Khama's policy in the short or even medium term will be a success or a failure. See Kenya as an example that since 1977 must prove that the exclusion of trophy hunting was not a mistake. What I expect to happen in Botswana is the development of "communal areas of conservation or something close to it," perhaps approaching the model employed in some areas of northern Kenya. The immediate response to be fought after the end of a hunting concession is the habitat threat, these areas can not become public areas for purposes other than conservation. The loby pro-hunting is powerful and rich $$$. I see Botswana with good eyes approaching Kenya, after all we do not yet know the moral and ethical values that will guide conservation in the future, and in some places Kenya is turning this page. However, from my point of of this concern is expanding in a global movement aiming at a non-consuptive tourism as a rule. One issue that worries me a lot is the human population increase (population explosion). Public policies have yet to account for the serious problem this will cause, with or without trophy hunting, wild habitats will be swallowed and wild animals will be managed intensively and in ever smaller habitats - such as domestic animals. As a conservationist, the Ethical issues regarding the upkeep and exploitation of wild animals are very important and I believe that this fact does not infantilize my opinions ... I could talk to you about the areas that really depend on the trophy hunting to keep (such as the Benoué Complex) and future opportunities will emerge. According to HSI reports a few years ago, which included Botswana, it said the following: Total trophy hunter's economic contribution represents a maximum of 0.03% of GDP according to economists' estimates. Foreign hunters account for less than 0.1% of tourists in the region, accounting for only 0.78% or less of the total value spent by tourists and have a "minimal impact" on employment, generating approximately 0.76% or less jobs in the sector of tourism. Not to mention that it is a very strong symbolism - cultural heritage of the era of colonialism, notably the imperialist movement emerged in the mid-nineteenth century - play-groud of European nobles. The hunting institute is a backwardness for all of Africa, perpetuates in cultural terms, as well as in the popular imaginary that Africa is a continent still submissive to the wills of its exploiters. @Paolo, I honestly did not understand the central idea of your post, you subdivided it into 7 paragraphs and there is no connection of ideas between them. In paragraph 3, information on the death of 100,000 animals per bushmeat is staggering mainly because of the Okavango, pesticide issues of the 1980s and 1990s have nothing to do with the current consequences of Khama's policies. Paragraph 4, which says that eco-tourism does not contribute to conservation ..... This sentence thus released, without greater depth of detail ..... is such a complex subject that it is able to format a Master's thesis.. Paragraph 5 is puzzling - bad with Khama worse without it !!!!. Paragraph 6. Answer: no country in the world has a moral basis for anything, are fragile and respond to the political and institutional context of the moment. The fact that Botswana has already lost recently for 2x its rhinos do not affect the population reconstruction of the present, on the contrary demonstrates the country's involvement worldwide with conservation, not only because it is an emblematic animal but because it is the most expensive animal $$$ for maintain and develop. Paragraph 7 - I fully agree. @wilddog, perfect in his considerations, and his final paragraph says it all. After all, we would participate in a forum that belittles our opinions or inhibits us from writing them. @optig, Despite being relatively new here it is easy to see in their posts their concerns about ethics and conservation, valuing non-consuptive tourism as a model of conservation to be followed. Your concerns about elephants are salutary. Congratulations to all, Matias
  8. Botswana zero tolerance policy is the key to its success. There are many people and associations dissatisfied with the course of this country, notably the progressive functional extinction of trophy hunting concessions. Ian Khama is developing an ethical conservation project, whose main foundation is the direct confrontation against poaching, the courage to use the army in this fight, and of course, harsh judicial measures - there is no more tolerance for poaching under any pretext. That is what South Africa lacks especially in Kruger, there are countless evidences of corruption in its judiciary. There are two judges who are notoriously absolved of blatantly caught criminals hunting rhinos and elephants, there is a certain lawyer who in collusion with both manages to acquit criminals with several pending lawsuits. The sad finding in South Africa is to see a country that has embraced conservation for many decades let its judicial system become disconnected with the real needs of fighting environmental crimes. It is unacceptable for Kruger to lose 6,000 rhinos in less than 10 years for poaching. Missing report mention the high number of elephants that inhabit Botswana in a permanent way, abandoning their old migratory routes, because they found a safe refuge. We must not forget that in Botswana the animals mostly roam free of fences. I am not "against" the trophy hunting. It is important for the conservation of habitats in remote areas of Africa, whose tourist visitation is insipient or even non-existent. Research has already proven that tourists prefer to visit areas, regions or even countries that do not own trophy hunting. Many people have not yet realized that the complex issues that address animal ethics are rapidly gaining in the attitude of tourists, being less and less in people's minds, the distance that previously separated domestic animals from the wild. Note that the practice of trophy hunting that is currently practiced in the private reserves adjacent to the Kruger (Timbavati, Klasserie, Umbabat, ....) are hidden from tourists' minds, as knowledge of such practices could affect the Kruger as a whole. With the exception of noble and ethical hunters we all prefer to spend our $$$$$ in countries ethically committed to conservation. I've watched dozens of trophy hunting movies or videos and never watched one that clearly and objective portrayed this: "Fair Persecution".
  9. @joliverself very good your report Simple and very nice text to read with great photographs. No doubt the Welwitschias are incredible. Concerns about the conservation of certain species in Tswalu are salutary, we can not forget that the financial cost of dividing your area into two is very high. According to studies, the survival rate of wild dogs is directly linked to the density of lions in a given area. Your information is valuable, and Tswalu will be seen with more attention. Since you were in the Hoanib Camp, I feel like going to the Purrus or Sesfontein community camp to try to visualize the rare desert lions, but with the bad news of the past few years the interest has faded away. When I go to visit a region I need to believe in the Project that is being developed for this area, I need to trust its future in the long term ..... for me it makes no sense to visit a region and be one of the last ones to photograph a certain animal that is doomed to disappear by governmental neglect. Congratulations.
  10. As long as there are no clear rules and punishments, the modus operandi of luring Hwange lions to the "adjacent game reserves" will continue indefinitely. What strikes me most is the need that these Concessions have to attract the Hwange lions, since if such concessions do not have lions it would be obvious that no hunting of lions should be allowed. The Concession should first prove that there are lions inhabiting their lands in a stable and permanent manner. Corruption subverts all the rules and common sense with which we all analyze these facts. What the Zimbabwean Government could do, once some of these private concessions expired, would be to open "by free competition" for non-consumptive tourism, under equal rights and duties, where the best proposal would receive the best evaluation adding greater value to Hwange. The need to attract game from a national park proves that such concessions are in total environmental imbalance. I recognize that it is a simplistic view of the facts, yet changing rules from culturally to very established is even more difficult and the simple act of complying with the Law is its greatest obstacle. Removing such Hunting Concessions from the direct perimeter of Hwange (a buffer zone) would also be a great option.
  11. @FLINTUS you were privileged. Beautiful photos of two Jaguars and a Jaguatirica. Seeing free felines is always a magical moment.
  12. @FLINTUS as you have been interested in the serious "Brazilian problems", and this is very important, I will bring some information that are usually unknown to the general external public. In 1979 State of Mato Grosso was dismembered in two, where the State of Mato Grosso do Sul (Capital Campo Grande) was created. The Matogrossian economy is based on agriculture, mainly in the production of soybeans (main crop and product of exports) and livestock raising. The large latifundia and mechanized agriculture (agribusiness) conditions a production process of high environmental impact, the large-scale use of agricultural pesticides is bringing a series of fertility problems, along with erosion, provoking a process "which I believe will not be reversed "Of embezzling the earth. Our current minister of agriculture, Mr. Blairo Maggi, is considered the largest individual soy producer in the world. The same has a judicial court race, of corruption and undue favors as in programs of land legalization. Mato Grosso is included in the so-called "Deforestation Arc", the part of the legal Amazon that most loses forest area. When it governed Mato Grosso, the rate of deforestation doubled. Now as minister the ruralist group is receiving enormous privileges, see the last of our "corrupt" President Temer to cancel the protected area of RENCA (4 million hectares) and the previous release of JAMANXIN. Brazil is experiencing the investigative process known as "CAR WASH", in which it has demonstrated, until now, that our renowned politicians are, without exception criminal perpetrators. The worst experience I had in Mato Grosso was in 2010, when I landed in the city of Alta Floresta (extreme north of Mato Grosso, near the border with the State of Pará), in the 160 km traveled by car to my final destination at Taimaçu Lodge (a beautiful place by the way, an island of green excellence - a portrait of the forest's magnificence of that region) I saw, with my own eyes, some 50 locksmiths (wood processing factories) - ALL ILLEGAL; the intense flow of trucks with logs and more logs - all of the forest until the vicinity of the Lodge Taimaçu were eradicated, and this whole area now serves as cattle pasture. Impressive, as in 45 years of occupation the whole forest has disappeared. An unprecedented governmental disregard. The problems excuse frankness, it is cultural in nature. Corruption is the "modus operandi" of our governmental structure! It is unfortunate how our natural resources are relegated to anything. It is painful to see how my country continues to be vilified by public officials. As in Brazil, crimes in which a penalty of less than 8 years is imputed does not impose its compliance in a closed regime, practically every environmental crime regardless of the aggravating circumstance provoked does not condemn anyone to remain in the penitentiary. In the case of Pantanal ecotourism, tourists, except for aerial sightings, are relatively spared from seeing the devastation that affects the two states of Mato Grosso. Geographically the production of soybeans is spread throughout the territory. The center and north of Mato Grosso, notably from the city of SINOP where it is sad to see its enormous devastation. The high concentration of "landless" in MST groups and the like dominates the swift trade of invasions of public lands. Usurpation / occupation of indigenous lands is commonplace. In our Federal Constitution we have a very efficient and even modern environmental legislation (for gringos). It attends the main international organizations and gives us the guarantee to participate and obtain access to the much sought-after financing and international programs that are directed to the underdeveloped countries (BID, WORLD BANK, ONU). A cynical stance on foreign policy reasons. On November 5, 2015, the date of the biggest socio-environmental tragedy in Brazil, the dam broke in the Minas Gerais state, where was deposited mining tailings from the company Samarco (owned by multinationals Vale and BHP Billiton), launching a wave of toxic sludge Carmo river, reaching the Doce river in all its extension, until arriving at the sea and dispersing by the coast, towards the north and south. Its devastating consequences continue to plague thousands of families throughout the Rio Doce Basin, from Mariana (MG) to Regency (ES), and the environmental impacts of the mud that continue to descend reach Abrolhos (BA). The process will go on for years, possibly for decades on end, ultimately resulting in a strictly pecuniary penalty. The legal proceedings in Brazil are made to be postponed indefinitely, enriching our competent lawyer, and notably our judiciary. I need to make it clear that I do not want to interrupt the tourist flow in Brazil. Brazil is a rich country with natural resources, passionate landscapes, a happy population that does not deserve to be the victim of a corrupt government system that has been with us since the colonial period. It is necessary that the world press, through the international organisms, aiming at serious practices of protection of our forests. "When the following headline appears in the media saying that deforestation in the Amazon has declined, you can be sure that in the area or region where this happened, the cause was not the result of any kind of prohibitive and efficient surveillance, but deforestation encountered some natural obstacle, and after a certain period of time this obstacle will be overcome. Whoever dictates the rate of devastation is nature and not any practical measure adopted by the Government of Brazil."
  13. Very good @FLINTUS. Brazil in terms of conservation is walking slowly, there is little professionalism in the eco-tourism sectors, the guides are always people of the region, however it has very little professional preparation to deal with external clients. The glimpse of the five ounces sighted was phenomanal for any tourist visiting the region. 95% are private lands, with huge cattle ranches, many fences and unfortunately a lot of illegal hunting of jaguars. There is no effective prison sentence for crimes against the environment, in the end it comes down to insignificant fines that are not actually paid (criminal cases are dragging on for years and lawsuits are being filed). I was twice in the south of Mato Grosso (Corumbá) and seven times in the Amazon region. The Pantanal is a very beautiful place, but it's a shame we do not own a big national park in this region. A little of history: After the military coup of 1964, a developmentalist race of occupation towards the interior of Brazil was promoted - notably Mato Grosso and the entire Amazon region, a process of "institutionalized invasion" along the lines of the old American West, devastation, fences and official In Real Estate Registry Offices that were officially directed to legalize the possession of these lands (a false heritage chain is used - a historical / chronological record of land ownership is invented). Thus, this model is perpetuated to this day in this usurpation of public lands of the Brazilian State. They are farms of 15,000 / 20,000 / 25,000 hectares whose "property" does not matter anymore. The time has tried to "legalize" all this usurpation, and there is no movement of the Brazilian Judiciary to reverse this process. We'll wait for the photos.
  14. "The Last Lioness" was a remarkable documentary, revealing a disturbing story and captivating message with a unique personality, capable of moving and creating an empathy little seen in documentaries of animal life. She was a ruthless warrior faces the hyena groups, in contrast to their desperate search for companionship, providing a sizing of how lions are socially dependent. His story also revealed how difficult / problematic is a reintroduction of lions into areas without fencing. Lady Liuwa returned to my thoughts. Today, much more aware of how lions are and live, I began to reflect on "being the last of a species in an area." The first one that came to my mind was the wandering lion that "appeared in 2015 in Gabon" and is surviving in the forested area of Bateke Plateau - what a fantastic and tragic story he has to tell! What he experienced. His elusive behavior, his stay in an unusual biome for lions is reflected in a possible adaptation caused by traumatic experiences with humans. How were the last days / months of life of the last lions of Mole, Comoé, Odzala? How are the last Lions of Waza living? Like Lady Liuwa will they have been fully aware of their situation and loneliness?. Link of the interview made in 2016 by Herbert Brauer.
  15. Some comments The report does not fit into the context of what the Mozambican government is actually doing in this park that can give all these relocated animals a good chance of survival. The first step would be to establish a viable economic project on the part of the government, community and private initiative, aiming at its sustainable development. The inclusion of Zinave and Bahine in the TFCA, with the exception of their habitats, It's still on its first steps, and both are conceptually far from adding anything of greater value. Sending animals is one of the last steps in a rational recovery process. A recurrent problem with reallocated animals is that they do not recognize the environment and "almost always" spread through adjacent areas, and if poorly managed, this relocation can cause only a large poaching race in the area. A law punishing poaching with up to 15 years' imprisonment has been enacted in Mozambique in 2015, but judges / prosecutors are not using such resources to curb these crimes. The relocation of the animals is most likely to be part of a marketing strategy for raising conservation funds and, depending on the early results, is that the Mozambican government will effectively improve the park's infrastructure. I remember that in 2016 I read that about five million dollars will be applied by the private initiative in the construction of a hotel / resort to attend the park, and by the current date this initiative continues in the roll of intentions. However, it is very important to recognize that practical steps are being taken to recover this park, as well as Sango initiative to provide the main input of this recovery "for free". Mrs Kalinina (HSI) criticisms, in my opinion, are purposely out of focus as she finds no practical support. The criticism should be directed to a whole context of guarantee to the survival of the reallocated animals. As has been said, the trophy hunt has no part in the administration of Zinave. I did not find any information on relocation / transportation issues that led to the belief that mass animals died inside the trucks or any illegal interception occurred.

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