I. P. A. Manning

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About I. P. A. Manning

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    Dar es Salaam
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    Integrated conservation and development
  1. http://www.postzambia.com/post-read_article.php?articleId=35454
  2. Here is a recent article showing the confusion of government. The Minister will allow mining after the conclusion of the UNWTO general assembly in Livingstone next month Govt cautious on sanctioning mining projects in gmas By Kabanda Chulu The Post Mon 15 July 2013, ENVIRONMNTAL protection minister Wylbur Simuusa says the government is taking a cautious approach to sanction mining projects that are located within protected game management areas… And Simuusa has said corrective measures will be taken to address environmental risks following revelations that the government has been promoting several projects like the Lusaka South MFEZ, Lusaka Heroes National Stadium and the Levy Mwanawasa Hospital that have been built without subjecting them to environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as required by law.
  3. Manning, I. P. A. 2012. The Landsafe Socio-Ecological Development Model for the Customary Commons of Zambia: Evolution and Formalization, 52 Nat. Resources J. 195 http://lawlibrary.unm.edu/nrj/volumes/52/1/manning.pdf (takes you to a PDF page) My article lays out my my Landsafe model, one I attempted unsuccessfully to implement in Zambia. Unless we empower the villagers, give them ownership of their traditional lands and the resources and get the 'Big Man' elite off their backs we will continue to see the plunder of wildlife and natural resources. Fortress conservation was dead in the water when we handed over power to the new class 'politician' and the donor-aid industry. It is a gloomy scene but I am buoyed by progress here and there. A friend in Tanzania has achieved something significant, as laid out in my forthcoming book Out of Zambia: a conservation and plunder history 'An intriguing quiet conservation success has been achieved by a professional safari operator, Steve Kobrine, who persuaded the Zanzibar government to allow him a small offtake of Aders' duiker (Cephalophus adersi) in a patch of forest in the southern part of the island, the residents of the area enthusiastically embracing the project and working with him to conserve the area and so allow the offtake of a few a year. He has made no attempt to gain ownership of the land, respecting the customary rights of the villagers. After the extinction of the Zanzibar leopard in about 1996 because of the mistaken belief that sorcerors were using leopard in their foul trade and that they should be expunged, this is a welcome and remarkable achievement in an age of plunder and extinction'.
  4. I had reports from my staff from the Mlembo River of the north-western part of the West Petauke GMA area of poisoned carcasses and a dead lion nearby - using suspected cotton insecticide. The poisoning of lion in eastern Bangweulu killed them all - that was reported to me by staff though I never saw a dead lion or had it assayed.
  5. It is difficult to get confirmation of what Zambia has decided on the hunting-safari front. The report which might be true appeared in the Zambia Times of 11 January in which they quoted Minister Masebo as saying, ‘ …there will be no consumptive safari activities in the aborted 19 game management areas for the year 2013...the move was aimed at giving Government enough time to deal with consultations and legislative issues affecting the safari industry’. This does not include areas outside of those 19 concessions - game ranches and presumably some other more marginal hunting blocks. Lion and leopard hunting is cancelled everywhere, an earlier decision doing the same for elephant. The Minister also said that Government would ‘mobilize human, material and financial resources to mitigate possible degredation through poaching and would rehabilitate understocked or depleted GMAs to make the industry more viable'. Of course if this is true we will have a repeat of the Chiluba ban on hunting in 2001-2002 where unpaid and disaffected government staff plundered wildlife for bushmeat and ivory, establishing poaching camps across the game estate – a level of poaching not seen since the mid-‘80s. To remove safari operators from the main Game Management Areas where the concessions are placed is an irresponsible act. Poaching is a serious problem already, given the failure of government to devolve powers and responsibilities to the chiefdoms and the fact that ZAWA is officially there to make money from wildlife and to trade shares in the future on the Lusaka Stock Exchange. In some GMAs ZAWA has been cropping animals for the butchery trade and translocating for live animals sales – the latter including the National Parks. One operator in the Luangwa found 40 elephant carcasses in his concession in the 2012 season, and the poisoning of lion and leopard (and hyena etc) for the muti trade in vultures, and now for ‘tiger bones’ has long been a serious problem ignored by the authorities. ZAWA will now go further into debt, will fail to pay the communities the $1 - $2 million already owed them, the chiefs without some added income to add to their already pathetic pay levels, and there will be no officers to protect villagers from animal depredations – bearing in mind that the villagers living in the concessions are 30 percent poorer than elsewhere. The Minister’s assertion that Government will protect and upgrade GMAs is an impossibility, the Millennium Development Goals and the various schemes in the climate change milking opportunity having signally failed to make any advance on poverty and natural resource degradation. Unfortunately the photo-safari industry is relatively small and concentrated in alluvial patches of the Luangwa, Zambezi, the Kafue and elsewhere. Their impacts are limited to these areas. They do work together amicably with the hunting-safari industry – though the latter in the lower Zambezi shot iconic bull elephant of inestimable value to photo-safaris, allowed to do so by a dysfunctional and corrupt ZAWA. Should hunting-safaris open again after a year, lion and leopard will likely be still off the quota. This will leave an antelope and buffalo hunt to sell in an expensive hunting ground. What all this says is that there has to be a revolution in the way wildlife and other renewable resources are dealt with on customary land. The state extracts all manner of rentals and benefits, but does not look after or invest in it; a simple harvesting approach rather like shifting agriculture itself.
  6. It is very encouraging to hear of this initiative. I often wonder how Lochinvar National Park is, once owned by my late friend Len Vaughan - later a founder of the southern part of the future Kafue National Park, joining with Norman Carr, Barry Shenton and Johnny Uys in the setting of boundaries and early development of the full Kafue National Park. As I wrote elsewhere: In 1905, with the building of the railway from Kalomo to Broken Hill, the Kafue Flats was described as the Elysian Fields, being covered with herds of game that had yet to be hunted seriously by anything other than the Ila people. A hundred years later, despite the flats being embraced within 6,000 km2 of protected floodplain fringing 255 km of the Kafue River, containing the parks (Blue Lagoon, Lochinvar, the Kafue) and their attendant GMAs, the flats are socio-ecologically impaired. Since 1972, with the construction of the Itezhi-tezhi Dam at the upstream side of the flats and the Kafue Gorge Dam downstream, both serving the Kafue Gorge Hydroelectric Power Project, the great herds have gone, the cattle of the Ila and the plateau Batoka people decimated by disease and restrictions on movement, Zambia’s most productive fishery destroyed, the waters and flood plains invaded by pernicious and unpalatable plant species, and people impoverished. The proximate cause of this disaster is the attenuated flood peaks, raised base flows, retarded drainage, reduction in floodplain area, unseasonable fluctuations in water levels, and the lamentable natural resource management by the Government, and criminal neglect for 37 years by the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) who have ignored the environmental management regime required for the Itezhi-tezhi Dam under their water contract. As a result, the operation of the Kafue Flat’s commons by two-dozen chiefdoms comprising Ila cattle herders, Tonga agro-pastoralists and Twa fishermen has been seriously impaired. Added to this the seizure of water and land resources by the Government and large agro-businesses such as the Nakambala Sugar Estates, as well as the removal of the land commons in the form of two National Parks, and the restrictions imposed on people by the GMAs, are all further factors which have greatly exacerbated the problem. Moreover, ‘free-rider’ immigration into the area by people from other parts of Zambia has further added to the burden of residents, once ancient members of the Kafue Flats commons.
  7. Sorry, but I have only just seen your reply ! Apologies.....here follows my model: Manning, I. P. A. 2012. The Landsafe Socio-Ecological Development Model for the Customary Commons of Zambia: Evolution and Formalization, 52 Nat. Resources J. 195. http://lawschool.unm.edu/nrj/current.php
  8. Hunting concession tenders in Zambia have for the last 40 years been dogged by the ‘Big Man’. Minister of Tourism and Arts Sylvia Masebo (whose hats won her this one) cancelled the selected tenders because the chiefs of the areas containing the hunting concessions had had no part in the selection process – required under the Hunting Concession Agreement. She was also under pressure from vested interests. The chiefs were invited to Lusaka and put up at Andrews Motel; and there they stayed until told to go home about a month later. Edwin Matokwani, DG of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), sullied by his part in a road contract that had the former DG Saiwana sent to Banjul by Pres Banda to sort out the ship rats, was fired, along with him the execrable Acting (of course) Director of Conservation, one Melody Simwanza (now Zeko), who for years hid the fact that ZAWA was not paying the customary communities their share of the loot garnered from safari hunting; and there are three other senior officers also back home. Hunting has not been stopped, for the moment. Were this to happen the Game Management Areas and the National Parks would suffer poaching not seen for years. Hunting safaris take a small quota and police their area. It is not perfect but without it you would see total anarchy. Zambia is not Kenya where after the hunting ban in ’72 they managed to keep things afloat because of massive tourist demand. Zambia has no such luxury. We had the same thing happen ten years ago at the last tender fest under Minister Mumba. Nothing will likely change. There will be a new set of tenders, and court injunctions as before, and hunting will get going somewhere around August, or before, depending on the bedding arrangement of the executive and the judiciary. One good thing: elephant are off the quota, and perhaps lion. And what of the future. Well, the PF Government (Veep Scott and Masebo) are talking to African Parks – businessmen masquerading as conservationists, and they are considering Rolf Shenton, former MMD MP for Mkushi and ardent conservationist , to take over the Deegeeship, a man reared in the traditions we hold dear. But there is still not a ZAWA Board in place, the last one had a member, a chieftainess ,who was responsible for the illegal alienation of part of a National Forest, another member someone who had attempted to build a large tourism/conference complex in the military/industrial style on the lower Zambezi. A sensitive fellow. ZAWA is a parastatal, instructed to register on the Lusaka Stock Exchange, its chief executive about to receive a salary and perks that are obscene. It is a business, its plan based on the plunder of wildlife. Sata promised me some years ago that he would do away with ZAWA. The time has come.
  9. http://www.zambeziresources.com/ The Zambezi Resources website above has the latest announcements on the issue, i.e. a notice that the Australian Securities Exchange have given their permission for a halt to share trading, followed by a letter from the ZS CEO Vanspeybroeck saying that their EIS has been turned down by the Zambia Environmental Management Agency and that he has requested a review of the EIS decision by Wilfrid Simuusa, Minister of Lands, Natural Resources and Environmental Protection, and that "Senior Ministers and the Minister of Mines are surprised" at such a decision. Such is the corruption and dysfunction. I have written to Simuusa as follows: Dear Minister, ZEMA is to be congratulated on refusing the mining operation in the Lower Zambezi National Park. I would now appeal to you to refuse to review the decision, and certainly not to overturn it. There are serious questions to ask about ZAWA and the Ministry of Mines' part in this disgraceful affair. Under the Mines and Mineral Development Act of 2008 and the Wildlife Act no such mining should be allowed. It is clear that there has been corruption and dysfunction which brings shame on Zambia. This is not what I went to war on the PF's behalf for, having my investments removed by the MMD Government, imprisoned and thrown out of the country under OP guard. And while I laud ZEMA's decision I have to question its failure to follow due process. The consequences of allowing the Australians to plunder the National Park and the GMA will reverberate around the world and will affect Zambia's standing - particularly at the UNWTO summit. Those of us who served in the Game Department for many years will not stand idly by and see our life's work plundered. The President promised me he would do away with ZAWA. At the least we need an inquiry, and not a brushing under the carpet as occurred with Mosi oa Tunya etc. Yours, etc., On the mining issue in the Zambezi Valley I have written the following: Within the Chiawa Partnership Park lying to the west of the Lower Zambezi NP, is the proposed Cheowa mine, part of the Cheowa and Chongwe Copperbelt owned by Glencore (51%) and Zambezi Resources (49%), and operating under the company, Cheowa Resources Limited. Mopani Copper Mines, also owned by Glencore, are the managers. The Environmental Project Brief, according to a UNESCO/IUCN inspection in January 2011 contained no mention of potential impacts on the Mana Pools World Heritage Site. In addition, upstream in the Chirundu area a large scale mining license for 25 years was issued to African Energy Resources (a member of the International Council for Mines and Metals (ICMM)) in October 2009 to mine uranium by way of an open-pit, sulphuric acid heap-leaching process, first at Njame, followed by Gwabe, but without the permission of Chief Sikoongo in whose country the proposed mines are located. The submission of an Environmental Project Brief (EPB) (an environmental management plan, according to the Mines and Mineral Development Act of 2008) is mandatory for issue of a prospecting license and as well for an EIS for a large scale mining license (25: 3 (e)); yet in the AER June 2011 annual report it states that baseline environmental studies had just started and would be followed by an EIS. In AER’s Kariba Valley mining concession, an Environmental Project Brief (EPA presumably) was submitted, but according to a UNESCO/IUCN mission report in January 2011, it contained no assessment of socio-economic and environmental impacts. This same mission declared that at Njame (Chirundu), when an assessment was made of drilling impacts, that in fact no socio-economic or environmental impacts were delineated. Further upstream, on the north bank of Lake Kariba, Denison Mines received their 25 year mining license in 2010 to mine uranium by open-pit, their EIA (EIS) being approved in the same year. Denison also received a radioactive materials license. In late 2011, the new Zambian PF Government informed UNESCO that no mining would be allowed in National Parks (including Community Parks) or in the Chiawa GMA. They then had a change of mind, allowing Zambezi Resources and their subsidiary, Mwembeshi Resources, to submit an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Mines and Minerals Development Act of 2008 clearly states the requirements for the issue of both a prospecting and a large scale mining license. In addition, under Part IX, section 115, the Director of Mines or the Director of Geological Surveys, ‘ in the matter of a mining right shall take into account the need to conserve and protect 1) air, water, soil, flora, fauna, fish, fisheries and scenic attractions and 2) to ensure any mining activity prevents adverse socio-economic impacts or harm to human health’. It would appear that the Ministry of Mines, ZAWA and the Mining Advisory Committee are in serious breach of their responsibilities under the Act where mining is taking place in the Chiawa GMA, the Lower Zambezi National Park and the Zambezi Valley as a whole. But ultimately it is the holder of a mining right who under section 123 is ‘strictly liable for any harm or damage’. In the submission of a bankable project, Zambezi Resources and other miners will be fully exercised to explain to shareholders and funders that no harm will come from mining activities. I have now been put in touch with the Legal Resources Centre regarding pro bono legal support to sue Zambezi Resources for damage to the park so far. I fear that we will have to widen our fire to include what is happening across the river in Zimbabwe. Sata and Mugabe signed up to host the UN World Tourism Organization General Assembly in Livingstone and Victoria Falls in August 2013. This is the date we have to work towards re the proposed Mana-Lower Zambezi plunder of its mining resources. With Mugabe recently given a 21 gun salute by Sata at the Lusaka Show, the two leaders are in total accord. See the latest from the Zambezi Society. No mining of any sort is allowed in a World Heritage Site. I would expect therefore that UNESCO will cancel its status. MINING IN MANA POOLS/SAPI/CHEWORE: REPORT ON EIA STAKEHOLDERS MEETING 31 AUGUST 2012 https://mail.google....p=emb&zw&atsh=1 On 31st August 2012, The Zambezi Society attended a stakeholders meeting at the invitation of Impact Assessment Consultancy IMPACO (www.impaco.org ) on behalf of Habbard Investments, to discuss the Environment Impact Assessment for heavy minerals exploration in the Chewore and Rukomechi Rivers in Northern Zimbabwe. This was a follow up to the company’s press publication in July 2012, inviting stakeholder inputs. The invitation stated: “ Habbard Investment is required by law, to undertake a series of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). These assessments seek to establish the likely impacts of mineral exploration activities and to recommend how proposed operations should minimize such impacts. Habbard Investments also organized consultation meetings to provide awareness of the techniques it intends to use; resistivity survey and the sonic drill rig. IMPACO was appointed to undertake this work in an impartial manner and produce a report and recommendations for field operations, which Habbard Investments will be obliged to follow. To this end IMPACO has employed a team of consultants in various fields of expertise to successfully complete this EIA. I therefore encourage you to voice any concerns on behalf of your organization. There is a time constraint, in that the EIA must be finalized by September.” Attendance The meeting was professionally conducted and well attended by about 50 stakeholders from the public and private sectors. Habbard Investments was represented by Mr Paul Chimbodza and Mr Lloyd Hove and by IMPACO, the consultancy employed by them to conduct the EIA. The Zambezi Society was represented by, Richard Maasdorp (Strategic Director), Peter Musto (Projects Co-ordinator), Des Matete (Legal Advisor), Nyasha Madziva (MIT student and Youth representative), and Wonder Matemaska (Mining engineer advisor). Background Habbard Investments explained that they have acquired Special Grants for Exploration for Heavy Minerals Sands in the Zambezi Valley under Section IX of the Zimbabwe Mines and Minerals Act as follows: - SG 5553 Rukomechi (45ha) SG 5554 Chewore (65ha) https://mail.google....p=emb&zw&atsh=1 Why the Zambezi Valley? According to Habbard Investments, the rivers in the Zambezi Valley have been chosen for the following reasons: · "Favourable geology · High grade metamorphic belt of the Zambezi escarpment contains source rocks for Heavy Mineral Sands · All drainage is into the valley offering a natural mineral sorting mechanism · Geologically known and mapped fluvial fan is of geologic interest · Reduction in gradient from escarpment into the Valley encourages deposition of heavies · Potential multi-million dollar revenue earner" The EIA process & stakeholder consultation They are statutorily required to seek approval from the Environment Management Agency (EMA) via an Environmental Impact Assessment EIA process for exploration only for heavy mineral sands at this stage. They explained that if their explorations are successful, they will have to seek separate approvals. This EIA process requires the involvement of the following stakeholders: — Ministry of Mines and Mining Development — Parks and Wildlife Authority — National Museums and Monuments — Chamber of Mines — Local Authorities, Council and Chiefs — Local Business — Special Interest Groups — Individuals Exploration Process They described their exploration process as follows: · Excavation of 1-metre-deep pits in the sand of the rivers, · Drilling of augur holes every 1km down the centre of the riverbeds · Trucking of samples out of the area and driving of vehicle through the access roads of the National Park/Safari Areas. · An exploration team consisting of a team of 5 people using a mobile camp. T They estimate that the exploration will take two months per river. Future Mining Habbard Investments did not give details of their possible future mining operation, should explorations be successful, saying they need the exploration result first. However, it is clear that their intentions, subject to viability, are to mine. IMPACO said that they would be making a request from their client for the possible mining methods, and these would then be circulated. They insisted that in all their operations they would take all reasonable measures to protect the environment, including, if necessary sanitising certain areas. They made much of the “positive” economic and social benefits of mining in this area, and urged that Zimbabweans need to engage each other in finding “home-brewed solutions towards sustainable exploitation of resources.. without the influence of external forces”. Objections Strong objections to the proposed minerals exploration (and subsequent mining) were voiced by conservation NGOs and representatives of both the private and public sectors. The major objections raised had to do with the potential long term impacts of such a proposal on the cultural, biodiversity and tourism benefits of the Mana Pools/Sapi/Chewore area as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, National Park, Biosphere Reserve, International Bird Area, wetland and Trans-Frontier Conservation Area. Objections from the public sector came from The Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA) (which expressed itself strongly opposed to alluvial mining in river beds, citing existing examples throughout Zimbabwe of the destabilisation of river systems through mining activities), from from the Zimbabwe Parks & Wildlife Management Authority, from the Department of Museums and Monuments which objects to mining activity but not necessarily exploration, and from the Ministry of Tourism which was concerned that the issue should not become an international one. It was pointed out by many that since the area is already internationally recognised as a World Heritage property, this is already a global issue and will unavoidably attract international publicity through the internet and be subject to pressure from the outside world. Response to Objections Habbard gave the following “Corrections” in response to some of the objections raised: · "Impaco (the EIA consultancy) is fully legitimate · Exploration is not mining · Habbard is not insensitive to the environment and fragile nature of Mana Pools · EIA process is Habbard’s initiative · Process not politically driven (they have received e-mails and verbal abuse to this effect) · Mining activities can take place in World Heritage Sites (they gave examples of a $400 million uranium project in a Tanzanian game park; Mt Nimba Iron Ore Project-Cote d’Ivoire and Kangaluwi Copper project in Zambia by Australian owned Mwembeshi /Zambezi Resources." World Heritage Sites threatened by Mining According to the International Union of Conservation (IUCN), African natural World Heritage sites that are increasingly threatened by commercial mining and oil/gas projects include: · Virunga National Park (DRC) · Comoe National Park (Cote D'Ivoire) · Mt Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Cote D'Ivoire and Guinea) · Dja Wildlife Reserve (Cameroon) · Kahuzi-Biega National Park (DRC) · Selous Game Reserve (Tanzania) · Air and Tenere Nature Reserve (Niger) · Manovo-Gounda Nature Reserves (Central African Republic) · Mana Pools National Park, Sapi and Chewore Safari Areas (Zimbabwe). This represents 24% of the 37 African natural and mixed World Heritage Sites, or one in four sites is threatened. This is an increase from 16% in 2009. Outcomes All stakeholders were asked by IMPACO to make formal written submissions and agreed to meet with as many of those present as possible on a one-to-one basis. IMPACO informed the meeting that the EIA needed to be completed by September, but many present felt this was unrealistically short. No firm date was given. Formal objection submissions The Zambezi Society will seek an interview and then review and resubmit its objections. We encourage other stakeholders to similarly submit responsible and considered objections ONLY via the following contact details:- Impact Assessment Consulting (IMPACO) 185 Willow Creek, Good Hope, Harare, Zimbabwe +263 775 884 176 itaigc@impaco.org or info@impaco.org www.impaco.org Habbard Investments 51 Dunkeld Road, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe +263 772 325 666
  10. http://www.change.org/petitions/zambia-environmental-management-agency-prohibit-mining-in-the-lower-zambezi-national-park The following is taken from my Petition Updates: Meeting of Tourism Council of Zambia on the LZNP proposed mining issue The Tourism Council of Zambia had a meeting regarding the proposed mining in Lower Zambezi NP. Their position - to be confirmed by official minutes of the meeting, is summarised by an attendee as follows: 'TCZ has to be supportive whilst seeking maximum mitigation measures be put in place. The industry needs to work with the mines to get as much out of them for the benefit of the park as possible. Objecting is going to end up as a losing battle that causes more harm than good. Tourism operators from Lower Zambezi tended to agree with this stance and that the mine would not affect the main tourism areas if it was managed properly as it is at the top of the escarpment. However lots of the questions to the mine operator were left unanswered in the environmental assessment meeting. So the industry needs to engage the operator now before they get permission as when they do get permission (which they inevitably will) there will be less incentive to be positive towards the industry'.
  11. We are still prohibited immigrants kicked out for being a 'threat to national security'! I hope the PF government will put things right. We shall see. In the meantime I still do what I can for the chiefdoms from afar. And a new donor scourge has arisen in the Kafue National Park. Truly the Plundercene epoch.
  12. I have come to believe that purely secular conservation will not work. And it is too late to summon up the ancient guardians of nature on which African culture and survival was based. So, an ethical and moral basis for the stewardship of nature appears to be the way forward. It is certainly needed in order to counteract the massive resurgence of sorcery in the lives of villagers.
  13. On 22 September 2011, came the news that the Patriotic Front Party under its leader, Michael Sata, its Vice-President, Dr Guy Scott, its Secretary-General Wynter Kabimba had won the election against the MMD government of Rupiah Banda. No shrinking violet, Sata immediately took action, firing a number of heads of parastatals, diplomats, police and army chiefs, and setting up Commissions of Inquiry into a number of organizations. He also fired all the politically appointed District Commissioners and Permanent Secretaries. The one I waited for was the closing of the Zambia Wildlife Authority, an action Sata had assured me some four years back would be a priority. It finally came with his announcement on 20 October that he had dissolved the ZAWA Board, pending an investigation. Then I received a copy of a UNESCO report on the Lower Zambezi from John Berry of Zambezi.com. Wonderful news. Final Decision Documents WHC.11 /35.COM /20 Decisions Adopted by the Word Heritage Committee at its 35th Session (UNESCO, 2011) http://whc.unesco.org/en/sessions/35COM Decision: 35 COM 7B.8 The World Heritage Committee, 1. Having examined Document WHC-11/35.COM/7B.Add, 2. Recalling Decision 34 COM 7B.7, adopted at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010), 3. Welcomes the decision of the State Party of Zambia not to approve the proposed mining operations in Chiawa Game Management Area and Lower Zambezi National Park nor the original proposal for a tourist and conference facility in the Chiawa Game Management Area across the river from the property, which could have impacted the property’s Outstanding Universal Value; 4. Notes that mining exploration is on-going in other parts of the Lower Zambezi Catchment, and considers that mining exploration and exploitation in the catchment could adversely affect the property if not strictly regulated; 5. Encourages the State Party of Zambia to consider nominating the adjacent Lower Zambezi National Park in order to eventually constitute a joint trans-boundary inscription on the World Heritage List, in line with the World Heritage Committee’s recommendation at the time of inscription; 6. Requests the State Party of Zambia to : a) Ensure that any redesigned tourist and conference facility in the Chiawa Game Management Area across the river from the property be subject to a new Environmental Impact Assessment which should include an assessment of the impact on the Outstanding Universal Value of the property, in accordance with Article 6 of the Convention, Submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2013, a report on progress in implementing the mission recommendations concerning mineral exploration and mining and tourism development and on the status of the mining activities and tourism developments which could affect the property; 7. Also requests the State Party of Zimbabwe to : a) Conduct a new survey of key wildlife species to assert that the populations have not been impacted since the 2007 economic crisis, to re-instate regular wildlife monitoring and to conduct a feasibility study for a possible reintroduction programme of black rhinoceros, which disappeared from the property due to commercial poaching in the 1980’s, Submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2013, a report on the state of conservation of the property, including progress in implementing the mission recommendations; 8. Further requests both States Parties of Zambia and Zimbabwe to : a) Inform the World Heritage Centre of any planned developments in, or adjacent to, the property, in accordance with paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, to conduct environmental impact assessments for any such planned developments and submit the results to the World Heritage Centre, Implement the recommendations of the joint reactive monitoring mission, with particular attention to the recommendations concerning mineral exploration and mining and tourism development. The likely motivation by Zambia to override the MMD government decisions, ‘the State Party of Zambia’, is likely to be the fact that the Chiawa GMA is mostly now classified as the Chiawa Community Partnership Park, which, along with the Lower Zambezi National Park are protected from mining by proposed amendments to the Wildlife Act of 1998 – should they become law. However, the Patriotic Front Manifesto (2011-2016) states that it will ‘Repeal both the Zambia Wildlife Act of 1998 and the Tourism Act and introduce a regulatory regime which fosters the development of the industry.’ Whatever happened over the last month it is a tremendous victory for conservation. A few days ago came other tremendous news. On Independence Day, 24 October, Zambia’s 47th, Sata announced he had released 670 people sitting in jails on charges of poaching, many of them villagers and their wives found with some meat in their pots, the criminal poaching gangs with their network of political clients still at work. I now look forward to a Commission of Inquiry into the killing of villagers by ZAWA scouts and of their part in the plunder of bushmeat and ivory, and of their failure to protect villagers from wildlife depredations. I wonder if the PF will now pursue their idea of a Zambia Cultural Advocacy Foundation in order to revive and protect the Zambian cultural heritage in areas of land, participatory community development and sustained natural resource management. I would certainly like to see us follow the example of the state of Alaska by establishing the Zambia Permanent Fund, with legislation affirming that a share of all mining royalties be paid to government as a replacement for taxes, and 25 percent of it be paid to the Zambia Permanent Fund. Annually, dividends to be paid in grants to those in need, in particular as payment to protect natural resources. Clearly one of the principal tasks is now to provide the necessary policy and legislative framework making customary common property rights unassailable. In this, common property rights would be fully assigned over land and renewable natural resources to responsible guardians on behalf of all Zambians. They, through their Trusts, then control market environmentalism, the chiefdoms having had the property rights to them fully assigned. They therefore internalize the negative externalities (costs) of pollution or over-harvesting, charging the necessary fees to concessionaires through an auction system. Government must therefore recognise public goods and ecosystem services as things of considerable value. Such services cannot under any circumstances be privatized, but are to be held under common property on behalf of the people.
  14. Comment on ‘Economic perspectives on Zambia’ by Elizabeth Mulenga (Zambian Economist) The threats to our protected areas from mining and industrial-type tourism are indeed massive – apart from their plunder for bushmeat and ivory. And the reaction of Zambians, local expatriates, NGOs, CBOs, journalists and church groups generally to what is happening, is redolent of a submerged hippo escaping the attentions of a hunter. Recently the Chinese owned Ichimpe mine was launched by President Banda, despite there being no approved environmental impact brief, nor the more considered environmental impact statement (EIS), mandatory under the Zambia Environmental Management Act No. 12 of 2011. Since the MMD Government has had the key to the till, $6.8 billion in illicit financial flows have been illegally exported from Zambia, with a massive discrepancy between money supposedly paid to the MMD by the mines and that to the Zambia Revenue Authority (ZRA). From the time the derisory royalty rates were set, it was clear that “Big Man’ payoffs were part of the deal. And firms like Glencore – surely the very definition and essence of the unacceptable face of capitalism - they of Mopani fame, simply paid nothing to Zambia, exporting every cent, and with it our human and environmental health. And they developed their empire with money from Credit Default Swaps – the toxic ‘derivative’ instruments’ that in 2008 brought our financial system to its knees. And they are still with us, they and the others who circumvent the law, operating with impunity and without regard for Zambia. What Mulenga sees as evidence of economic growth is in reality a cardboard cake with pretty, though noxious icing; rather like GDP itself And the poor have got poorer – in line with Engel’s Law (the poorer a family, the larger the share of its income that is spent on food). As with the Mopani Mines debacle, not only are massive sums of money being illegally exported, but the land is being poisoned, the people impoverished – though the waPajero continue to lay down another neck-role of fat. All the evidence and research reveals the resource curse that the mines have been for Zambia. And it is simply not true that government institutions have improved in their regulation and best practices –even if it is a former Minister of Mines who says so. How can one even quote an MMD Minister after a Zambian’s average longevity at birth has dropped about one year for every year of the last 21-years of the MMD’s rapacious and dysfunctional rule. Mulenga quotes Dr Beene, the PS of Mines, on the issue of mining in national parks saying, ‘that there were currently no licenses issued …on any mine in a Zambian national park’. Beene is lying. Mwembeshi Resources were issued with a Large Scale Mining License in February. And similar licenses have been issued to Denison et al who are about to mine uranium in the mid-Zambezi on customary and Game Management Areas. Beene’s promise to send me the environmental brief that was submitted by Zambezi/Mwembeshi Resources for the Kangaluwi Copper Project in the Lower Zambezi National Park remains an MMD politicians’ promise. And inquiries made to Beene and to the Zambian Environmental Management Agency about progress on the submission of the Environmental Impact Statement by Mwembeshi have not been answered. And for a mining license to be issued, it should have had the permission of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA). In any case their DG at the time, Saiwana, stated in November 2008 that they do not want mining in national parks or GMAs. For ZAWA now to use the excuse of the shortage of manpower for their failure to prohibit or stop legal or illegal mining in protected areas is frankly pathetic. The reason they don’t stand in the way of mining is because they are told what to do by the “Big Man”, Banda. Mulenga asks whether mining should be allowed in national parks. I am taken aback at something that should be so obvious to Zambians who have their own rich pre-musungu history of conservation in the baChiwinda and other guilds, and who also have inherited our British conservation model first issued under Magna Carta in 1215. National Parks are category II protected areas managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation, defined by the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas as a ’Natural area of land and/or sea, designated to (1) protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations, (2) exclude exploitation or occupation inimical to the purposes of designation of the area and (3) provide a foundation for spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational and visitor opportunities, all of which must be environmentally and culturally compatible.’ Any mining or large scale hotel development is therefore exploitation and occupation inimical to the purposes of designation of the area. For there to be any change for the better in Zambia it will require a government to be voted in on 20 September that has adopted the principles and ethics of the Christian stewardship of nature. The Patriotic Front manifesto is avowedly Christian – though tolerant of all religions. We expect much of them. I expect very much more from Zambians.
  15. I recently wrote to the Council of Churches head, the Rev Mutale regarding the excellent report they produced on uranium miningin the mid-Zambezi Valley. Funded by Norwegian Church Aid, the report recommended the following: In order to address the issues observed above, there is need for: 1. the Government of the Republic of Zambia to develop a policy on uranium, on which basis; ¬ Current Regulations can be revised ¬ Community concerns can adequately be addressed ¬ Educational and awareness programmes for communities can be formulated ahead of any uranium exploration, mining and processing operations. 2. CCZ to champion the formation of an independent watch-dog group composed of representatives from the Private Sector, Civil Society, NGOs, Scientists and Medical Experts to champion the interests of the people affected by uranium mining operations. 3. Government to immediately embark on a vigorous training programmes for public officers in the three regulatory institutions that are involved in regulating uranium mining operations. I have written to the rev. and their advocacy officer, alcinomoyana@gmail.com, asking about progress on the watchdog organization but despite phoning and emailing have had no reply. So much for the CCZ's ability to mobilize against the plunder. I see that Matt. has asked questions of the Lower Conservation Zambezi organization whose newsletters make no mention of the mining about to assault the mid-Zambezi. A question has also been posed to Jeremy Pope, the country rep. for the Nature Conservancy, who recently paid a visit with his boss for Africa to the LCZ HQ. I look forward to hearing what he has to say on the matter. Last night the BBC aired a discussion on mining in Zambia. Present was Clare Short, the former Labour Minister and now head of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EIT), the Minister of Mines for Zambia, the CEO of Mopani Mines (the Glencore crowd), Peter Sinkamba the anti-mining activist on the Copperbelt and numerous rather well padded gentlemen, including an incoherent environmental advisor for the mining giant, Vale. The interviewer was good, but apart from some good shots from Short, it was the usual bumbling by an MMD Minister out of his depth. We must await a new government in eight weeks.

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